8. A. Any action that stops play will result in a dead ball.

8. B. New 2021: A fault called by a referee or player, or a fault committed by a player, will result in a dead ball.

A fault called by a referee or player will result in a dead ball.

Reason: This change defines the actual timing of when a fault has occurred. The moment in time when a referee/player calls the fault may be slightly different than when the actual fault was committed. The ball is instantly dead the moment the fault occurs, regardless of when the referee/player may choose to verbalize the fault call. It reinforces in other sections that when a player commits a fault, the ball is immediately dead.

Scenario: Matthew volleys an erne shot that hits Mark in the chest. As the ball is falling to the ground, Matthew touches the net. After the ball hits the ground, the referee calls a fault on Mark for being hit with the ball. Mark now claims that Matthew had committed a fault (by touching the net) before the ball became dead when the referee said “fault”. the referee explains that the ball was instantly dead when it hit Mark, and that the referee’s verbalization of the word “fault” is not the determining factor on exactly when the ball was dead. the referee rules a fault on Mark and awards the rally to Matthew.

8. C. A hinder called by the referee or player will result in a dead ball. the referee will determine if the hinder called by the player was valid. A valid hinder will result in a replay.

8. D. New 2021: A ball in play that contacts a permanent object after it has bounced on the opponent’s court will result in a dead ball. The player who hit the ball shall win the rally.

A ball in play that contacts a permanent object after it has bounced on the court will result in a dead ball. The player who hit the ball shall win the rally.

Reason: This change, and the addition of the word “opponent’s” is in conjunction with the modification of rule 11.K and further clarifies which court is referenced when applying this rule.

8. E. New 2021: Other than non-volley zone violations, faults may only be committed when the ball is live and in-play. The penalty for a fault may be enforced after a rally has ended (i.e., NVZ, incorrect player/position, etc) Note: Technical warnings or technical fouls may be called at any time during the match including when the ball is dead.

Reason: This addition puts in writing and clears up confusion about when faults occur compared to when they may be enforced. It specifically states that faults can only be committed (NVZ exceptions noted) when the ball is live. Once a fault occurs, the ball is immediately dead and no other faultable actions can be penalized (other than NVZ violations). An example is when a player goes for an Erne and hits the opponent with the ball, then steps onto the opponent’s court. The stepping onto the opponent’s court is not a fault because the ball was dead instantly when it hit the opponent; and the resulting stepping on the opponent’s court is of no consequence specifically because the ball was instantly dead when it came in contact with the opponent. It also reinforces that when a referee has stopped play or called “Time”, this constitutes a dead ball state of play and no faults (crossing the plane, touching the net, stepping onto opponent’s court, serving early) can be committed or penalized; NVZ exception noted.

Scenario A: the referee calls the correct score and starts the 10-second count. The server changes service courts and the referee calls “Time” and instructs that players will be allowed to re-position and the score will be recalled. After the server changes courts and while the receiving team is repositioning, the server “serves the ball”. The opponents claim that the server committed a fault by serving the ball before the referee had recalled the score. the referee informs that when “Time” was called, the ball was dead and a serving early fault cannot be committed when the ball is dead. the referee allows for everyone to get into position and recalls the score without assessing a penalty.

Scenario B: A team has been playing all day long without a referee. In the bronze medal match, they are assigned a referee. After a rally has ended, but before the referee starts to call the score, out of habit, the server serves the ball. the referee should not call a fault since the ball is “dead”. the referee should remind the server to wait until the entire score has been called before serving the ball.

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