November 1, 2015

What is Pickleball??

, What is Pickleball??,
Highest governing bodyInternational Federation of Pickleball[1]
First played1965, Bainbridge Island, Washington, U.S.
Team membersSingles or doubles
Mixed-sexYes, separate singles, doubles, & mixed doubles
TypeOutdoor or indoor, racket sport
EquipmentPlastic pickleball, composite or wooden paddle, and net
VenueOutdoor or indoor, pickleball court
GlossaryGlossary of pickleball terms
Country or regionWorldwide
World GamesNo

Pickleball is a racket or paddle sport in which two players (singles) or four players (doubles) hit a perforated, hollow plastic ball with paddles over a 34-inch-high (0.86 m) net until one side is unable to return the ball or commits a rule infraction. Pickleball is played indoors and outdoors. It was invented in 1965 as a children's backyard game in the United States, on Bainbridge Island in Washington state. In 2022, pickleball was named the official state sport of Washington.[2]

While it resembles tennis and table tennis, pickleball has separate rules, paddles, and court dimensions. The court is 44 feet (13.4m) long and 20 feet (6.1m) wide, and the paddle is larger than the one used in table tennis. The hard plastic ball used in pickleball produces less bounce than tennis balls. On each side of the net is a 7-foot area (2.1 m) known as the non-volley zone (or the kitchen); a player standing therein may not strike the ball until it has bounced. The rules specify side-out scoring, where only the server can score a point. The minimal amount of bounce, the non-volley zones, and the underhanded stroke with which all serves are made, give the game a dynamic pace.

Between 1965 and 2020, pickleball became a popular sport in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, and began to grow in popularity elsewhere. In 2021, 2022 and 2023, the sport was named the fastest-growing sport in the United States by the Sports and Fitness Industry Association, and by 2023 it was estimated to have over 4.8 million players. The growing popularity of the sport has been attributed to its short learning curve, its appeal to a wide range of ages and fitness levels, and its low startup costs. There are now thousands of pickleball tournaments throughout the United States, including the U.S. National Championships and the U.S. Open Tournament, along with two professional tours and one professional league. Pickleball is also growing in popularity outside the United States: there are several other national and international competitions.


The game was created in 1965 on Bainbridge Island, Washington, at the summer home of Joel Pritchard, who later served in the United States Congress and as Washington's lieutenant governor.[3] Pritchard and two of his friends, Barney McCallum and Bill Bell, are credited with devising the game and establishing the rules.

According to Joan Pritchard, Joel Pritchard's wife, "The name of the game became Pickle Ball after I said it reminded me of the pickle boat in crew where oarsmen were chosen from the leftovers of other boats."[4] Other sources state that the name "pickleball" was derived from the name of the Pritchards' family dog, Pickles.[5] The Pritchards stated that the dog came along after the game had already been named, and it was the dog that was named for the game of pickleball. They said the confusion arose when a reporter interviewing the Pritchards in the early 1970s decided it would be easier for readers to relate to the dog rather than a pickle boat. Research by USA Pickleball has confirmed that the dog Pickles was born after the game had already been named.[6] Jennifer Lucore and Beverly Youngren, authors of the book History of Pickleball: More than 50 Years of Fun!, say that they could not conclusively determine whether the game was named for the dog or the dog was named for the game.[7] They did, however, discover a third possibility: Bill Bell claimed that he had named the game because he enjoyed hitting the ball in a way that would put his opponent in a pickle.[8]

Shortly after the game was invented, some of its inventors and their friends brought pickleball to Hawaii, where the game became known as pukaball. Puka, meaning "hole" in Hawaiian, was at first used to refer to the ball, since pickleballs have numerous holes, and later used to refer to the game itself.[9]


, What is Pickleball??,
Aerial view of six pickleball courts in The Villages, Florida in 2016, with two tennis courts in the background


When Pritchard and Bell returned from golf one Saturday afternoon in 1965, they found their families bored.[10] They had attempted to set up badminton, but no one could find the shuttlecock. Pritchard and Bell challenged their kids to devise their own game. The adults and kids ended up at the badminton court and began experimenting with different balls and rackets, including table tennis paddles. The 5-foot (1.5-metre) badminton net was eventually lowered to hip level to accommodate driving the ball.[11]

Initially, a Wiffle ball was thought to be the ideal ball, but later the Cosom Fun Ball was found to be more durable and provided a better playing experience.[12] The table tennis paddles were quickly replaced with larger, more durable plywood paddles fabricated in a nearby shed.[4][13][5] McCallum continued to experiment with various paddle designs in his father's Seattle basement workshop.[14] One paddle, he called the "M2", or McCallum 2, became the paddle of choice for most early players of the game.[15]

Pickle Ball, Inc.

Soon after its creation, pickleball became popular with local neighbors and relatives of the inventors. In 1968, Pritchard, along with McCallum's son David and two other friends, formed Pickle Ball, Inc.[16] The company filed its first annual report in 1972,[17] around the same time they trademarked the name Pickle-ball.[18] The company manufactured wooden paddles and pickleball kits to satisfy the demand for the sport.[13] Interest in pickleball continued to grow, and spread from the Pacific Northwest into warmer areas as "snowbirds" brought the sport south to Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Florida. In 2016, Pickle Ball, Inc. was purchased by,[19] which operates under the corporate name Olla, LLC.


A 1976 tournament held at the Southcenter Athletic Club in Tukwila, Washington, is credited with being the first formal pickleball tournament. It was billed as "The World's First Pickleball Championship" by Joel Pritchard and received a mention in the July 1976 edition of Tennis magazine.[20] The United States Amateur Pickleball Association (U.S.A.P.A.), now known as USA Pickleball, was formed in 1984, which is when they published the first official rulebook for the sport and held the first National Doubles Championships in Tacoma, Washington. By 1990, the sport was being played in all 50 states.[21] In 2001, pickleball was included as a demonstration sport in the Arizona Senior Olympics (ASO) with 100 participants. The pickleball tournament was held at the Happy Trails RV Resort in Surprise, Arizona, and within five years included 275 participants. The inclusion of pickleball in the ASO was seen as a significant contributor to the growth of tournaments in the United States.[22]

The U.S. Pickleball National Championships are held near Palm Springs, California, and co-hosted by Larry Ellison, co-founder and CEO of Oracle and owner of the Indian Wells Tennis Garden, where they have been played since 2018.[23] Previously, the National Championship was played in Arizona from 2009 to 2017. The tournament has the oversight of the U.S.A Pickleball Association; itself reincorporated with an updated rule book in 2005 after its foundation in 1984.[24][25] The U.S. Open Pickleball Championships are played in another hub of pickleball, Naples, Florida, and started in 2016.[26] Estimates for active players grew to 3.3 million in 2019, up 10% from 2016.[27] As of 2021, there were 58 member countries overseen by the International Federation of Pickleball.[28] As of 2022, there are over 8000 pickleball locations in the United States.[29]

Official recognition

State Senator John Lovick proposed a bill making pickleball the official sport of Washington state in 2021. Pickleball was then named the official state sport of Washington in 2022 by the state legislature. On March 28, 2022, the legislation was signed by Governor Jay Inslee on the original Pritchard family court where the sport was invented.[30][31]


The 2023 report by the Sports and Fitness Industry Association (SFIA) states that pickleball has grown 87.5% year-over-year and 158.6% over three years.[32] The report also states that 8.9 million people played pickleball in 2022 and the number of new participants in 2022 exceeded the total number of pickleball players in 2021, which shows the meteoric rise of the sport.[32]

Pickleball participation grew in every region in the United States according to the report by the SFIA. The South Atlantic region (includes DE, FL, GA, MD, NC, SC, VA) had the most pickleball players with 1.9 million players. The Pacific region was second with 1.5 million players and the East North Central region came in third with 1.4 million players.[32] In May 2024, CNBC noted, citing a report from the Trust for Public Land, the number of outdoor pickleball courts in major cities went up 650% in the last seven years, with more than 3,000 courts across 100 of the most populated cities in the US.[33]

The SFIA estimates that approximately 900 million dollars of court infrastructure investment is needed to keep up with the fast growth of the sport. To illustrate the need for this infrastructure, the SFIA has reported that the Middle Atlantic region (includes NY, NJ, PA) had the lowest court coverage with 1 dedicated court for 1000 participants.[32]

The growth of professional pickleball has attracted investors such as NBA player LeBron James, retired NFL quarterback Drew Brees, and entrepreneur Gary Vaynerchuk. This increased visibility has helped raise the sport's popularity in recent years.[34] [35]

However, the rise of competitive play has also led to more injuries, according to recent analyses by the insurance industry, which found treatment costs for pickleball injuries have increased as participation has grown.[36] Common pickleball injuries involve muscles, joints and tendons, especially in the shoulder, elbow and wrist (which proper technique, equipment, warm-up routines and injury prevention can help reduce). Advocates of the sport's growth say that pickleball is an activity that can provide exercise and social connections for players of all ages and skill levels.

Court and equipment

, What is Pickleball??,
Dimensions of a pickleball court
, What is Pickleball??,
A pickleball paddle with one 26–hole pickleball (left) and one 40–hole pickleball (right)


The regulation size of the court is 20 feet (6.1 m) by 44 feet (13 m) for both doubles and singles, the same size as a doubles badminton court. A line seven feet (2.1m) from the net bounds the non-volley zone. Twenty-two feet (6.7 m) from the net, the baseline marks the outer boundary of the playing area. The area bounded by the non-volley zone line, the sidelines, and the net, including the lines, is known as the non-volley zone or "kitchen". The area between the non-volley line and the baseline is the service court. A center line divides the service court into left and right sides.[37] Regulated tournaments and games are usually played on a specialized polyurethane sport surface; however, courts are often set up on concrete, Astroturf, and indoor basketball courts.[38]

, What is Pickleball??,
Outdoor pickle-ball court in La Crosse, Wisconsin, in 2023


The net is 36 inches (0.91 m) high on the ends and 34 inches (0.86 m) high at the center. The net posts should be 22 feet (6.7 m) from the inside of one post to the inside of the other post.[39]


A Wiffle ball was the original ball used when the game was invented. USA Pickleball (USAP) and the International Federation of Pickleball (IFP) have since adopted specific ball standards unique to pickleball. Balls must be made of a durable molded material with a smooth surface and must have between 26 and 40 evenly spaced circular holes. They must weigh between .78 and .935 ounces (22.1 and 26.5 g) and measure between 2.87 and 2.97 inches (73 and 75 mm) in diameter. Tournaments sanctioned by the USAP and IFP must choose from a list of preapproved balls found on the USAP and IFP websites.[40]

Balls with smaller holes are generally used for outdoor play to minimize the effects of wind, but any sanctioned ball can be used for either indoor or outdoor play.[25]


For sanctioned games, USAP and IFP paddle size standards say the combined length and width of the paddle shall not exceed 24 inches (0.61 m); the length cannot exceed 17 inches (0.43 m).[41] There are no requirements regarding thickness or weight. The paddle must be made of a non-compressible material and the surface of the paddle must be smooth. Paddles used in sanctioned tournaments must be on the list of preapproved paddles found on the USAP and IFP websites.[42]

Order of play

, What is Pickleball??,
Service in
, What is Pickleball??,
Service out

Any fair way of determining who will serve first and from which side is acceptable.

Announcing the score and serving

The score is announced before each serve by an official or the server (or their partner if the server is incapable of announcing the score).

In doubles: the score has three parts; the serving team's score, the receiving team's score, and the server number, a "1" or "2" that indicates whether the server is the serving team's first or second server during their team's current turn serving (a side out, also the term for when the right to serve passes to the opposing team). While normally a side out comprises service by both players, the first one comprises only a single server, so the first server of the game is considered the serving team's second server and may call the server number "start" or "2". The starting score in doubles is announced as "zero zero two (0 0 2)".[43][44][45]

In singles: The score has two parts; the serving player's score and the receiving player's score. The starting score in singles is always announced as "zero zero".

The first server of the game serves from their right-hand service court or the "even service" court.

Two-bounce rule

A serve must land in the diagonally opposite service court on the opponent's side of the net (see "service in" diagram). The serve receiver must allow the ball to bounce once before returning the ball to the server's side of the net. Once the receiver has returned the ball over the net, the serving side must also allow the ball to bounce once before returning the ball to the non-serving side. This is known as the two-bounce rule.[46]

After the first two returns, either side may volley the ball—that is, return it before it bounces. The ball can never bounce more than once before it is returned. No player may volley the ball while standing in the non-volley zone or touching any of the lines around the non-volley zone or "kitchen".

Remainder of play

, What is Pickleball??,
A pickleballer preparing to return the ball using a backhand stroke

A server continues to serve, alternating between the right and left service courts until their team commits a fault.

Doubles: At the beginning of a doubles game, the side serving first is only allowed one fault before their side is "out", called a side out, and the serve passes to their opponent. After the first side out of the game, each team is allowed two faults before a side out is called, allowing each of the players on a doubles team to serve before the serve passes to the other team. A team's second server must continue alternating between the right and left service courts from wherever their partner left off. For example, if their partner's last serve was from the right service court, the second server must start serving on the left service court. After a side out, the first serve is always initiated from the right serving area.

Singles: A side out is called each time the serving side commits a fault. If the serving player's score is even (including zero), they must serve from the right, or even, service court; otherwise, they must serve from the left, or odd, service court. Depending on the current score, the first serve after a side out can be from either the right or left service court.

Pickleball is usually played to a score of 11. The winning team must win by two points or play continues until one team wins by two.[47] Tournament games may be played to 11, 15 or 21 points with players rotating sides at 6, 8 or 11 total points respectively.

Manner of play


Pickleball utilizes side-out scoring, meaning only the serving side may score a point. The serving team earns one point each time the non-serving team commits a fault. Neither team earns a point when the serving team commits a fault. Since the score is always called as the serving side's score followed by the receiving side's score, the two scores are reversed whenever a side out occurs. For example, if a doubles team faults when the score is "five three two" (two indicating the second server), the other team becomes the new serving team, and the score is stated as "three five one".


When serving, the server must be behind the baseline on one side of the center line and serve the ball to the opponent's diagonally opposite service court. Two types of serves are permitted, a volley serve or a drop serve.

  • Volley serve: When the server's paddle strikes a ball without the ball contacting the ground, it must be served with an underarm stroke so that contact with the ball is made below the waist in an upward arc and the highest point on the paddle head must be below the wrist. In 2022, the USAPA announced a rule change that became effective in 2023: imparting spin onto the ball during its release from the hand (known as the 'spin serve') was banned.[48]
  • Drop serve: When a ball is dropped to the ground and allowed to bounce before the server's paddle strikes it, the ball cannot be tossed or impelled by the server in any way. The ball can bounce more than once before being hit, and unlike the volley serve, there are no restrictions on how the player must hit the ball.[49]

Player positioning

Besides the server, there are no rules dictating where each player must stand when the serve is initiated, but serve receivers usually start behind the baseline until they know where the serve will bounce. The receiver's partner usually starts near the non-volley line also known as the kitchen line. The server's partner usually stays behind the baseline with the server until they know where the first service return will bounce. Some doubles partners use a strategy called stacking to ensure each partner can quickly move to the most advantageous side of the court, based on each partner's skill set, after each serve and/or service return.[50]

Each player must remember their game starting position when serving and returning a serve. The wrong player serving, serving from the wrong side of the court, or returning a serve, are all faults.

Doubles: A team's score should always be an even number when their starting server is serving from the right-hand service court, and an odd number when serving from the left-hand service court. The reverse is true for a team's non-starting server.

Singles: In singles, a server's score will always be even (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10...) when serving from the right-hand service court and odd (1, 3, 5, 7, 9...) when serving from the left service court.[39]: A-15 

Non-volley zone

No player may volley a ball while standing in the non-volley zone or touching any of the lines around the non-volley zone. A player may enter the non-volley zone to play a ball that has bounced and may stay there to play other balls that bounce,[39]: A-22  but the player must re-establish both feet outside the non-volley zone before playing a volley. The non-volley zone is the highlighted area and numbered lines shown in the "Service out" diagram. Some players may know the non-volley zone as "The Kitchen".

Rally and fault

After the serve, a rally continues until one side commits a fault resulting in a dead ball.[51] In non-refereed matches, players are responsible for making line calls on their side of the net. They may also ask an opponent for assistance; if the opponent saw the ball clearly and does then make a call, it is binding. If there is any doubt about whether the ball is out or in, the call should be made in favor of the opponent.[52]

Faults include:

  • the wrong server serves the ball or the serve is from the wrong side of the court
  • either of the server's feet touches the baseline, the court, or the area outside the imaginary extensions of the centerline or sideline
  • not hitting the serve into the opponent's diagonal service court
  • the wrong receiver returns the ball
  • volleying the ball when returning a serve
  • volleying the ball when returning the first service return
  • not hitting the ball beyond the net
  • not hitting the ball before it bounces twice on one side of the net
  • hitting the ball so it lands out of bounds (outside the court lines)
  • stepping into the non-volley zone also known as "the kitchen", or touching the non-volley line also known as the kitchen-line, in the act of volleying the ball
  • touching the net with any part of the body, clothing, paddle, or assistance device

Types of shots

  • Groundstroke: striking the ball after it has bounced
  • Volley: striking the ball before it has bounced
  • Dink: a strategic groundstroke, returning the ball after it bounces in the kitchen so that it lands in the opponent's kitchen
  • Drop shot: Similar to a dink, but made from deeper in the court; a preferred return of the return of serve which is designed to allow the serving team time to advance to their kitchen line

Professional pickleball

The popularity of pickleball has spurred the growth of investors and sponsors. As a result, two pro pickleball tours were independently formed in 2019, and a professional pickleball league was formed in 2021.[53]

Association of Pickleball Professionals

The Association of Pickleball Professionals (APP) was formed by Ken Herrmann, who aligned his tour with USA Pickleball (USAP), the governing body of pickleball in the United States. All games are sanctioned by USAP and must abide by USAP rules.[53] The 2022 APP Tour includes 32 tournaments in five countries and has attracted an average of 800 players in each tournament. Total prize money is expected to be $2 million.[54]

Professional Pickleball Association

The Professional Pickleball Association (PPA) was formed by Connor Pardoe and based in Draper, Utah. Desiring independence to shape the tour to his liking, Pardoe did not align with USAP. Initially, the PPA required all players to sign a one–year exclusivity contract, preventing PPA players from participating in any non-PPA tours. In late 2021, Thomas Dundon purchased the PPA and extended the exclusivity contracts to 3 years. Pardoe remained CEO of the PPA Tour.[53] The 2022 PPA Tour is expected to include 20 tournaments with total prize money of $2.5 million.[55]

Major League Pickleball

The Major League Pickleball (MLP) organization was formed in 2021 by Steve Kuhn in Dripping Springs, Texas.[53] In its first year, the League consisted of 8 teams and included both APP and PPA players. The second year expanded to 12 teams, but the PPA no longer allowed their players to participate in the League. Each team consists of two men and two women. Team members are chosen by a dual snake draft designed to make teams as competitive as possible.[56] Three separate competitions are scheduled for 2022, and the winning team at each competition will win $25,000 for each team member. The winning team is also awarded the Pritchard Cup. The league will expand to 16 teams in 2023, with NFL quarterbacks Tom Brady and Patrick Mahomes, tennis player Naomi Osaka,[57] and NBA players LeBron James, Kevin Durant, Draymond Green, and Kevin Love buying expansion teams.[58][59][60]

Notable Players

Pickleball world records

There are four published Guinness World Records for the sport of pickleball,[61] the most recent of which is the Longest pickleball rally, consisting of 16,046 consecutive shots, lasting 6 hours and 11 minutes set by Angelo and Ettore Rossetti on October 10, 2022.[62] The only previous documented Pickleball endurance record was in 2011 and 2012 by Justin Lawrence and Jeffrey Baker of New Port Richey, Florida. It was performed at the New Port Richey Recreation & Aquatic Center, in Pasco County, Florida. Both were employees of the rec center and wanted to find a way to grow the sport locally. Lawrence is a multi-sport athlete (football placekicker and soccer goalkeeper) who was focusing on endurance and OCR events at the time, with no real racquet sport experience. Baker is also a multi-sport athlete with some ping-pong and tennis experience. Both years the duo played for over 24-hours consecutively. Due to paperwork and processing errors, Guinness World Records did not recognize the record, so World Record Academy stepped in and verified the record along with Pasco County giving them an official resolution.[63][64][65]


United States

, What is Pickleball??,
Pickleball equipment for sale at Academy Sports + Outdoors in Indianapolis, Indiana.

As of 2022, there were an estimated 4.8 million pickleball players in the United States, a 14.8% increase over the previous year, with 10,724 playing locations registered with USA Pickleball.[66]


Pickleball is not an Olympic sporting event[67] and is not yet represented in the Global Association of International Sports Federations (GAISF).[68] There are two pickleball federations with multiple national members, the International Federation of Pickleball (IFP) and the World Pickleball Federation (WPF).[53] Both the IFP and WPF are pursuing efforts to have pickleball featured as an Olympic sport, possibly as a demonstration sport. The IFP is specifically working towards the Paris 2024 or Los Angeles 2028 summer games.[69][70] An article by Sports Illustrated concluded the game would not likely be seen at the Olympics before 2032.[53]

Pickleball was accepted as a demonstration sport at the July 2022 Maccabiah Games, considered the third largest sporting event in the world. This marked the first time pickleball appeared at an event sanctioned by the International Olympic Committee.[71]

International Federation of Pickleball

The IFP was established in 2010 by the USA Pickleball Association to serve as the World Governing Body of pickleball. The IFP had 63 national members as of July 2022.[72] The IFP had 70 member nations at the end of March 2022, but a conflict in the organization resulted in 7 of 8 full member nations, and 2 associate member nations, withdrawing, including USA Pickleball.[73]

The annual Bainbridge Cup, named for the island where pickleball was invented, was established by the IFP in 2017. It became the sport's first intercontinental team event. The inaugural event was held in Madrid, Spain and pitted North America against Europe. The winning team earns the Bainbridge Cup trophy.[74] Both the 2020 and 2021 Bainbridge Cup team competitions were canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

World Pickleball Federation

The WPF was established in 2018 and had 37 member nations as of November 2022. Part of the WPF's stated mission is to "govern the infrastructure of pickleball". The WPF declared October 10 of each year World Pickleball Day and set the goal of introducing 10,000 new players to the game of pickleball every October 10.[75]

The World Pickleball Games were first announced by the WPF in 2021 and are intended to serve as a format for possible future Olympic games.[76] The inaugural World Pickleball Games had been scheduled for May 2022 in Austin, Texas,[70] but due to on-going impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic the games were postponed until 2023.[77][needs update]

Rule variations

As the game is relatively new, rule modifications are frequently being made. In 2021, a rule change was made for a "net serve" so that a serve that touches the top of the net and lands in the proper service court is no longer replayed.[78] The previous rule on a "let serve" was borrowed from tennis, where a "let" call is always replayed.

Para pickleball

Para pickleball, sometimes called adaptive pickleball or wheelchair pickleball,[79] was officially recognized as a competitive branch of pickleball by USA Pickleball in 2016. Rules for those in wheelchairs are similar to the standard rules with minor modifications. A player's wheelchair is considered part of the player's body, and all rules that apply to the body also apply to the player's wheelchair. A pickleball player in a wheelchair is allowed two bounces instead of one. When a player in a wheelchair is serving the ball, they must be in a stationary position. They are then allowed one push before striking the ball for service. When the player strikes the ball, the wheels of the wheelchair must not touch any baseline, sideline, center line, or extended center or sideline. When a game involves both wheelchair and standing players, each player must abide by their respective rules. Standing players will adhere to the standing pickleball rules, and the wheelchair players will adhere to the wheelchair pickleball rules.[37]

Professional tour rules

APP Tour games are sanctioned by USA Pickleball and follow all rules established by USA Pickleball. The PPA Tour is not sanctioned and has chosen not to adopt some recent rule changes for professional and senior professional matches. Non-professional PPA Tour matches will continue to follow all rules in the USAP rulebook. The specific rules that the PPA deviates from for professional matches are: the drop serve, the paddle swipe or chainsaw serve, and let serves.[80]

The PPA has not instituted the drop serve and does not permit them in professional PPA matches. New USAP rules allow a player to touch the ball with only the hand releasing the ball, thereby making the chainsaw serve illegal in APP games. The PPA continues to permit the chainsaw serve in professional PPA matches. Let serves that hit the net but land in the correct service area are considered valid serves by USAP rules, but such serves must be replayed in PPA professional matches. If a second let serve occurs when the serve is replayed, it is a fault for PPA servers.[81]


Noise level

Video of a pickleball game

When the hard pickleball paddle strikes the hard ball, it produces a sharp popping sound. The constant sound during play has generated conflict between pickleball court owners and nearby property owners.[82][83] The noise, combined with the rapid rise in pickleball's popularity, has produced an intense backlash against the sport in communities across the United States.[84]

In September 2020, one park in the Portland metropolitan area had to institute a ban on pickleball, despite having just installed new pickleball courts five months earlier. Residents nearest to the pickleball courts said they could not hold conversations inside their homes due to the noise from the pickleball courts. Despite the ban, people still used the pickleball courts the following year. In June 2021, at a West Linn City Council meeting, one resident said the noise resulted in family gatherings being "... wrought with discord and physically debilitating stress." Some described the noise as "trauma-inducing".[85] Similar noise issues were raised in 2023 by residents of an apartment building adjacent to a pickleball court in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.[86]

Court replacement

The construction of pickleball courts in public spaces has been a source of controversy, especially when the new court replaces existing tennis or basketball courts.[87][88] The repurposing of basketball courts for pickleball is often decried as an example of gentrification as while basketball is popular amongst people of color and the working class, the demographics of pickleball players tend to be affluent and white.[89]

See also


  1. ^ "International Federation of Pickleball - IFP".
  2. ^ "Pickleball is now the official state sport of the U.S. state of Washington". KXLY. March 29, 2022. Retrieved September 18, 2022.
  3. ^ Lyons, Gil (August 24, 1990). "Pickle-ball: Founders of game say paddle sport simply is a barrel of fun". The Seattle Times. p. C7. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
  4. ^ a b Pritchard, Joan (July 27, 2008). "Origins of Pickleball". The Parkersburg News and Sentinel. Archived from the original on March 22, 2012.
  5. ^ a b "The History of Pickleball". Hoffmann Estates Pickleball. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
  6. ^ "History of the Game". Official USAPA Website. June 27, 2013. Archived from the original on November 17, 2018. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  7. ^ Lucore, p. 65.
  8. ^ Lucore, p. 64.
  9. ^ Lucore, p. 41.
  10. ^ O'Brien, Jane (March 15, 2021). "Pickleball: The racquet sport experiencing a pandemic boom". BBC News. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  11. ^ Lucore, p. 9.
  12. ^ Lucore, p. 11.
  13. ^ a b "The History of Pickleball". PICKLE-BALL INC. Archived from the original on February 22, 2022. Retrieved April 18, 2022.
  14. ^ Lucore, p. 66.
  15. ^ Kane, David (October 21, 2015). "Food for Thought: The Evolution and Growth of Pickleball". The Tennis Media Company. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  16. ^ "State of Washington: Articles of Incorporation". State of Washington: Digital Archives. Archived from the original on May 31, 2022. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
  17. ^ Kershner, Jim. "Joel Pritchard and several friends incorporate Pickle Ball Inc., to promote the new sport they invented in 1965 at Pritchard's Bainbridge Island cabin, on February 13, 1968". History Archived from the original on February 13, 2021. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
  18. ^ Lucore, p. 22.
  19. ^ Lucore, p. 23.
  20. ^ Lucore, p. 120.
  21. ^ "History of the Game". USA Pickleball. June 27, 2013. Archived from the original on June 28, 2022. Retrieved August 7, 2022.
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  • Lucore, Jennifer; Youngren, Beverly (2018). History of pickleball: more than 50 years of fun! (First ed.). Oceanside, CA: Two Picklers Press. ISBN 978-1-7320705-0-9.
  • Movsessian, Richard; Baker, Joe (2018). How to play pickleball: the complete guide from A to Z : illustrated stroke techniques and winning strategies. Las Vegas, Nevada. ISBN 978-1-7239-9308-4.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • Pickleball Courts : Construction & Maintenance Manual 2020 (Second ed.). Forest Hill, MD: American Sports Builders Association. 2017. ISBN 978-0-9816862-3-3.
  • "USA Pickleball 2022 Rulebook" (PDF). USA Pickleball. 2022. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
  • "Current USA Pickleball Rulebook" (PDF). USA Pickleball. Retrieved May 8, 2024.

External links